Central pressure waveform and arterial stiffness parameters have been shown to be important in heart failure.22, 23 People with heart failure often also have a number of other chronic conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes or renal failure. Central hemodynamic and arterial stiffness parameters have been shown to be powerful predictors of major cardiovascular events beyond traditional risk factors, providing important clinical information to guide hypertension management.24, 25, 26, 27
Central hemodynamic measurements have been shown to be markers of early organ damage and are considered to be important when quantifying total cardiovascular risk. Central hemodynamic measurements have also been associated with conditions that are heart failure risk factors and co-morbidities, such as hypertension and diabetes(4).
Association between arterial stiffness and heart failure
Arterial stiffness has been shown to be significantly higher in individuals with heart failure (with preserved ejection fraction) compared to individuals without heart failure (10, 11).
Furthermore, aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), the most common surrogate measure of arterial stiffness, has been reported to steadily increase from healthy normotensive individuals to hypertensive to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction(10).
In addition, aortic PWV has been shown to be significantly higher in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) compared to heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)(11, 12). Further examination of the factors associated with aortic PWV and heart failure indicated that aortic PWV was weakly influenced by hemodynamic factors and therefore remained a good independent prognostic parameter in HFpEF(12).
Heart failure is a complex and serious condition, and often coexists with other chronic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes and renal failure. Significant gaps still remain in the diagnosis, prevention and effective treatment strategies in heart failure patients, contributing to the poor outcome and low survival rate, once diagnosed.
Central hemodynamic measures of wave reflections have been shown to be associated with left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in hypertensive patients, and aortic stiffness has been shown to increase steadily from normotensive individuals to hypertension to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Furthermore, aortic stiffness (measured by aortic pulse wave velocity) has been shown to be associated with a significantly increased risk of developing heart failure in the future.13,22
Arterial stiffness may play an important role in risk stratification, and interventions to reduce large artery stiffness may reduce the risk of incident heart failure. In addition, central arterial pressure waveform analysis and arterial stiffness may play an important role in the management of heart failure therapy as they provide additional information to help with therapeutic decision-making. A randomized, controlled pilot study conducted by the Mayo Clinic and the University of Arizona tested the strategy of making treatment decisions using central pressure waveform analysis versus conventional guideline directed therapy. It was observed that patients treated with central pressure guidance demonstrated significant improvement in exercise capacity and peak oxygen consumption compared to controls. This preliminary data implies that aggressive afterload reduction guided by central pressure waveform assessment can improve outcomes even in the setting of maximal guideline-directed medical therapy.(21) Measurement of central arterial pressure waveforms and arterial stiffness are also clinically valuable for monitoring treatment.
There is a large body of evidence documenting the effects of pharmacological treatment on arterial stiffness, (15-17) and more recently the guidance of therapy in hypertension(18). This includes a number of drugs that are currently prescribed for heart failure patients.
A number of studies have investigated the effects of different pharmacological therapies in heart failure patients. Switching from a selective- to non-selective beta-blocker (carvedilol) in patients with heart failure with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease resulted in short term reduction in aortic AIx as well as NT-proBNP, an established prognostic marker in heart failure, with no change in brachial pressure(19). An earlier study observed the negative effect on AIx from aspirin in heart failure patients taking ACE-inhibitors compared to clopidogrel, a drug considered to be a safe alternative to aspirin(20).
In one recent study of heart failure patients, treatment decisions were guided by the central pressure waveform, compared to conventional clinical assessment. This small study showed that aggressive titration of heart failure medications guided by AIx was associated with improved exercise capacity. Patients who were treated by the AIx-guided pathway were more likely to receive additional vasoactive medications, including nitrates, aldosterone antagonists and hydralazine, with no increased risk of side effects, such as decreased renal function, dizziness and syncope(21). This preliminary data implies that aggressive afterload reduction guided by central pressure waveform assessment can improve outcomes even in the setting of maximal guideline-directed medical therapy.
- P. Ponikowski, S. D. Anker, K. F. Al-Habib, “Heart Failure. Preventing disease and death worldwide. European Society of Cardiology, 2014.
- Yancy, C. W. et al. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. Circulation 2013;128(16):e240-e327.
- Mozaffarian, D. et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics–2015 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2015;131(4):e29-322.
- Vlachopoulos, C. et al. The role of vascular biomarkers for primary and secondary prevention. A position paper from the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on peripheral circulation: Endorsed by the Association for Research into Arterial Structure and Physiology (ARTERY) Society. Atherosclerosis 2015;241(2):507-532.
- Weber, T. et al. Arterial stiffness and arterial wave reflections are associated with systolic and diastolic function in patients with normal ejection fraction. Am J Hypertens 2008;21(11):1194-1202.
- Tsioufis, C. et al. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is accompanied by increased aortic stiffness in the early stages of essential hypertension: a TDI approach. J Hypertens 2005;23(9):1745-1750.
- Ikonomidis, I. et al. Incremental value of arterial wave reflections in the determination of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in untreated patients with essential hypertension. J Hum Hypertens 2008;22(10):687-698.
- Abhayaratna, W. P. et al. Aortic stiffness for the detection of preclinical left ventricular diastolic dysfunction: pulse wave velocity versus pulse pressure. J Hypertens 2008;26(4):758-764.
- Russo, C. et al. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection: sex differences and relationship with left ventricular diastolic function. Hypertension 2012;60(2):362-368.
- Desai, A. S. et al. Central aortic stiffness is increased in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction. J Card Fail 2009;15(8):658-664.
- Balmain, S. et al. Differences in arterial compliance, microvascular function and venous capacitance between patients with heart failure and either preserved or reduced left ventricular systolic function. Eur J Heart Fail 2007;9(9):865-871.
- Tartiere, J. M. et al. Interaction between pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, pulse pressure and left ventricular function in chronic heart failure. J Hum Hypertens 2006;20(3):213-219.
- Tsao, C. W. et al. Relation of Central Arterial Stiffness to Incident Heart Failure in the Community. J Am Heart Assoc 2015;4(11):
- Chirinos, J. A. et al. Arterial stiffness, central pressures, and incident hospitalized heart failure in the chronic renal insufficiency cohort study. Circ Heart Fail 2014;7(5):709-716.
- Protogerou, A. D. et al. The effect of antihypertensive drugs on central blood pressure beyond peripheral blood pressure. Part I: (Patho)-physiology, rationale and perspective on pulse pressure amplification. Curr Pharm Des 2009;15(3):267-271.
- Manisty, C. H. et al. The acute effects of changes to AV delay on BP and stroke volume: potential implications for design of pacemaker optimization protocols. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2012;5(1):122-130.
- Trudeau, L. Central blood pressure as an index of antihypertensive control: determinants and potential value. Can J Cardiol 2014;30(5 Suppl):S23-S28.
- Sharman, J. E. et al. Randomized trial of guiding hypertension management using central aortic blood pressure compared with best-practice care: principal findings of the BP GUIDE study. Hypertension 2013;62(6):1138-1145.
- Jabbour, A. et al. Differences between beta-blockers in patients with chronic heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized crossover trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;55(17):1780-1787.
- Meune, C. et al. Comparative effect of aspirin and clopidogrel on arterial function in CHF. Int J Cardiol 2006;106(1):61-66.
- Borlaug, B. A. et al. A randomized pilot study of aortic waveform guided therapy in chronic heart failure. J Am Heart Assoc 2014;3(2):e000745.
- Chirinos J et al. J Amer Coll Cardiol 2012;60(21):2170-2177.
- Chirinos JA et al. J Am Heart Assoc. 2015;3;4(3)e001335.
- Roman MJ et al. Hypertension. 2007;50:197-203.
- Booysen HL et al. J Hypertens. 2013;31;1124-1130.
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- Ben-Shlomo et al. JACC 2014;63:636–46.